It gained independence from South Africa on 21 March 1990 following the Namibian War of Independence. Its capital and largest city is Windhoek. Namibia is a member state of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations.
The dry lands of Namibia were inhabited since early times by Bushmen, Damara, and Namaqua, and since about the 14th century AD by immigrating Bantu who came with the Bantu expansion. It became a German Imperial protectorate in 1884 and remained a German colony until the end of World War I.
In 1920, the League of Nations mandated the country to South Africa, which imposed its laws and from 1948, its apartheid policy.
Uprisings and demands by people of Namibia with the support of the international community, the United Nations assumed direct responsibility over the territory. It recognized the South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian people in 1973.
Namibia, however, remained under South African administration during this time. Following the intensification of liberation struggle for freedom and independence of Namibia, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. With the exception of Walvis Bay — a harbour town that remained under South African control until 1994 — Namibia obtained its independence from South Africa in 1990.
Namibia has a population of 2.1 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, herding, tourism and the mining industry - including mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals form the backbone of Namibia's economy. It is the second least densely populated country in the world, after Mongolia.